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The map represents the area comprised between the river Don with the lower course of the river Pripyat' and the whole of the Volga, with the exception of a small part, for which there was no room on the map; the lower part of the Kama, up to Vyatka, and part of the river Vyatka; in the north—the W.
Dvina, from its sources to its estuary in the Gulf of Riga (More Varyazhskoye = the Varangians Sea); in the south—almost the whole of the Khvalynskoye Sea (the Caspian Sea) is also present, i.e.
The ramparts or abattis (7), which were built with the purpose of protecting Moscow State against the invasion of the Nagaian and Crimean Tartars, are indicated in the map.
This line of defence begins east of the Volga, at Simbirsk (1648), and, with interruptions and branches goes on to the Donets, crosses it, and reaches the river Vorskla at Khar'kov.
Of the first affluents of the Volga, distances are given only for the Oka, from Nizhny Novgorod to Kromy.LEO BAGROW A number of Russian historians have of late devoted their work to the study of communications in ancient Russia. A distinction of the routes is made: the more important "shlyakhi" are the courriers' routes and the less important are those connecting provincial towns. Bernstein-Kogan on the Route of the Varangians to Constantinople (1) and of J. Golubtsev on the 17th-century roads in the Province of Novgorod (2) have been published. The last-mentioned presents data only on the main routes and the respective distances between towns, while on the first-mentioned the routes proper are traced out.Although there are many populated places situated on rivers, traffic was evidently not encouraged on all these rivers or parts of them, for there is no indication of the distances which would have served for fixing the fare between these places, if this map was meant to be a supplement to the "Record of distances" (8). The Volga is represented with an interruption in the north, i.e.the upper course of the Volga, from Tver' upwards, is recorded on the map; then, after an interruption, it continues from Yaroslavl' down to the Caspian Sea.
The rivers, completing the communication scheme of the map, serve as an extra means of communication, i.e.